64 THE FATE OF MAN
merely shows the relative use of words in modem
social life. Up to the present moment Hitler
has done almost nothing for social reform, and
is even, to judge by appearances, compelled to
rely upon financial and capitalist groups. Still
there are some positive social-economic elements
in the national-socialist programme.
It has become quite usual to contrast Fascism
with democracy. The battle against Fascism is
to be waged in the name of democratic principles.
This is a very superficial attitude. Democracy
may not be considered as something static; we
must penetrate into the dynamic of democracy.
Fascism is one of the extreme results of demo-
cracy, a revelation of its dialectic. Fascism sets
itself up against a liberal-parliamentarian demo-
cracy, rather than democracy in general. In his
book on the principles of Fascism, Mussolini
says definitely that Fascism is democracy, but
democracy of an authoritarian sort. This may
sound paradoxical and may shock the adepts of
old forms of democracy, still it may be affirmed
that Fascism is one of the results of J, J. Rousseau's
doctrine of the sovereignty of the people. The
doctrine of popular sovereignty, which seems to
be implied in the word democracy, of itself gives
no guarantee of liberty for human personality.
Rousseau believed that the common will of-a
sovereign people was holy and infallible, which